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MARY was perhaps the most beautiful of any queen with her winning manners and polite accomplishments. She was the daughter of James V. of Scotland and Mary of Lorraine. Her father heard of her birth on his death-bed. He had hoped his heir would be a son. Her early years were passed amid the gaieties and splendors of the French court. When she was only sixteen she was married to the Dauphin whose company she had long enjoyed. They were delighted even to be with each other. In society they would often separate themselves from the rest of the gay throngs around them.

The next year Francis was on the throne and Mary was the happiest queen ever. But the following year the king died, childless, and Mary was compelled to return to Scotland. Mary was a Catholic, and Scotland had adopted the Reform Faith, and treated her with coldness and suspicion.

Mary's life from childhood was a series of romances associated with marriage schemes. Francis had not long been dead before the courts of other countries were planning marriage alliance with the beautiful queen. The kings of France, Sweden, Denmark, Don Carlos of Spain, the Archduke of Austria, and many others of high rank were named as suitable candidates for her hand. Her own choice was her handsome cousin, Lord Darnley, who was a Catholic and one of the nearest heirs to the English crown. He was a weak, corrupt, ambitious man, but he had a winning face and the marriage took place in Holyrood Palace in the summer of 1565. One day, long before this marriage took place, as Mary was coming down the stairs of the palace, she saw a dark, romantic Italian musician standing in the hall. That was the first time she ever saw David Rizzio, who had come to Scotland as an ambassador from Savoy. In a celebrated picture of Mary, she is shown in surprise and horror at the sight of this adventurer, as though the moment were one of evil foreboding. This painter won the confidence of Mary through his art, and used his influence to bring about the marriage with Darnley. But after the marriage, Rizzio drew the affections of the queen away from Darnley, who was determined to assassinate Rizzio. Several Scottish guards united with Darnley to do the deed. One evening when Mary was having dinner with Rizzio, Lord Ruthven appeared at the door of the room and asked the queen to send him out. She refused Lord Ruthven, saying that she could see danger on his face for Rizzio. Then Ruthven and his followers rushed upon Rizzio and dragged him from the room and stabbed him fifty-six times. You could still see the blood stains in Holyrood Palace where Rizzio was killed. It is said that his body was thrown upon the same divan at the foot of the stairs where Mary had first seen him.

MARY knew that Darnley had caused the murder, and was determined to make his heart as sorrowful as her own. For political reasons, however, she became reconciled to him, and three months after the tragedy, James VI of Scotland and I. of England was born. Twelve months passed. Earl Bothwell, a nobleman, had won the queen's confidence, and the two plotted to end the life of Darnley. The queen went to visit Darnley at Glasgow. where be was ill. She pretended a great deal of affection for him and brought him back to Edinburgh. She left him late one night to attend a marriage feast. As she left, she reminded him that it was about a year ago at that time that David Rizzio was killed. After she left, there was a terrible explosion and Darnloy's body was found in a neighbor's garden. Mary had had her revenge. Three months later she married Bothwell who had just divorced his wife.

After all this, Scotland rose up against Mary. She fled to England for the protection of Elizabeth, abdicating her throne to her son James. She was taken as a prisoner, and held at Carlisle, and then to Fotheringhay Castle. She was then tried for conspiracy against the life of Elizabeth, and the sentence of death was put upon her. The last tragedy for her, was in Fotheringhay Castle. Bothwell died nine years later in exile, He had become a raving madman. They found after her execution, that Mary's hair was as white as a woman's of seventy, under her wig. No wonder. But she had one little friend who remained true to her till the last. It was her little dog. He followed her to the block, and cowered, frightened, under her dress at the fatal moment, and lay down beside her headless body after it was over. Two days later, it died.

Barry Crale.


IN SOUTHERN Italy one used to meet everywhere the flocks of pretty brown and black goats trudging along the dusty roads, or clamoring over the precipitous hillsides. People are pleased to hear the sounds of their tinkling bells. The pastures of this sunny South are better adapted to these hardy little creatures than for cows. In Naples they are driven along the streets, stopping here and there as customers for their milk are found. Little children will come out of their houses with a cup to have it filled with the warm, rich milk. A goat has no scruples either about going up and down stairs, and will go up four floors to be milked.

L. King.